Linq Syntax Group

For the best of both worlds, you can mix query styles in a single statement (see Myth #5 for an example). Chapter 1: Getting started with linq 2 Remarks 2 Examples 2 Setup 2 The different joins in LINQ 2 Query Syntax and Method Syntax 5 LINQ methods, and IEnumerable vs IQueryable 6 Chapter 2: Linq Using Take while And Skip While 9 Introduction 9 Examples 9 Take method 9 Skip Method 9 TakeWhile(): 9 SkipWhile() 10. Let us understand Group Join with. Remote model in contrast is rather declarative to the runtime. While querying with LINQ, some times we will have to use the group By clause. One of the first points of confusion about learning LINQ is that it looks like two different languages. PHP code syntax check; javascript validator; Regex Tester; Compress JS and CSS;. However, it only returns the rows selected by all queries. This means you should be able to use Linq to Querystring to provide data for KendoUI, BreezeJS, and other awesome client libraries. It requires System. From the image above, we are going to cover the C# programming language only. The purpose of this query is to group transactions in the table and retrieve a list of unique months and years in a simple list. DebtCategory ) group dbtgroup by Faculty. Method Syntax is made up of extension methods. (In this example, we used just a single range variable, p, so the two syntaxes were similarly simple). into grouping is an alias for what will be a grouped tuple, which is quite a nice idea. Our codebase at work has hundreds if not thousands of LINQ queries, mostly using method syntax. ProductName) };. The GROUP BY concept is one of the most complicated concepts for people new to the SQL language and the easiest way to understand it, is by example. As, my requirements evolved, I discovered a simple group by would not suffice. 101 LINQ Samples Learn how to use LINQ in your applications with these code samples, covering the entire range of LINQ functionality and demonstrating LINQ with SQL, DataSets, and XML. Basically the philosophy in both SQL query and LINQ are the same as each other, so once we get used to it, we can make use of this as easy as SQL qu. The approach taken by LINQ is unique in many fashions, the core asset being the LIN part: Language INtegrated. If I use something aside from "Group" (e. post-6826871810842780519. Notice that the ORDER BY clause appears at the end. The most significant addition is LINQ -- or language integrated query. NET framework. It could just be ReSharper's suggestions that make it seem unreadable. Count aggregate can be replaced with Group. Here is the change required :. , so I know a lot of things but not a lot about one thing. Is this possible in one LINQ statement? In the end I need to return this: IList < ResturantTypeInfo > GetReportLis. Linq has to be added to your project. With this method, we create a collection where, at each key, a group of results is placed. i am having a datatable filled with some rows,i am trying to fill the datagridview with the GROUP BY query output of some fields i referred MSDN but i could not fallow please give some example. Like in that post, I'll be using examples in both query syntax and method syntax. In this article, I have written several programs that is easy to understand and will help you to understand GropuBy operator. We may choose some of the properties of an entity as a result. Lets have two classes as below class Employee. object then (as with Python lambdas) the LINQ code simply calls the compiled lambda expression like any other delegate, but if you are filtering a SQL lookup the LINQ code gets an expression syntax tree and further compiles it (at runtime) into SQL code to perform the filtering at the database level. In the LINQ to Objects tutorial I described the GroupBy standard query operator and the group clause of the query expression syntax. NET C# Filter an array of integers with LINQ C# using a lambda expression Convert array of strings to integers with C# LINQ Projection in LINQ C# with the Select operator Projection in LINQ C# with the SelectMany operator Performing joins across two sequences with the LINQ Join operator Joining…. The two forms are exactly equivalent (where they overlap), and performance is also exactly the same because, during compilation, query syntax expressions are converted to lambda syntax. LINQ Samples How to use this compilation of 101 samples. A user mailed back asking how to use LINQ to find the highest value in a. Query Syntax. Having problems getting it done in Linq all the examples I can find only group by a single column. Consider function from the previous post. In this guide you will see how to perform a group by operation on your data in Entity Framework and how to use aggregate functions such as SUM, MAX or COUNT. By Peter Vogel; 04/14/2017. Resharper's "Convert to LINQ Metohds chain" function was used to help with this conversion. LINQ is truly integrated into VB. So far I got here: var rooms = from roomBind. Linq to entities group by keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. In the LINQ to Objects tutorial I described the GroupBy standard query operator and the group clause of the query expression syntax. All of them query the Cities collection, which is a LINQ to Entities (database) object. LINQ (Language INtegrated Query) provides a great query language which can be used to simplify database and object quering. Grouping is a very powerful feature provided by LINQ that transforms a collection in groups where each group has a key associated with it. I have come to use LINQ in my every day programming a lot. In Haskell, you can provide your own function directly in the syntax. That leaves us with the group-adjacent XSLT example to be solved with LINQ to XML. Calling functions in LINQ queries. Related Links. Sum or Group. In this tutorial, we will focus only on the second approach, the LINQ Method syntax. This example shows how to calculate sum for each group. If I have a set of the data of employee which has employee ID and if a group by the sql group by departmentid, anything else that is specific to the employee has to be aggregated somehow by using Sum, Min or Max , or may be aggregate. post-6826871810842780519. Abstract: In this article, we will see how to select the highest value in a Group or Category using LINQ Sometime back I had written an article on Selecting the Highest value in a Group/Category using SQL Server 2005/2008. The two forms are exactly equivalent (where they overlap), and performance is also exactly the same because, during compilation, query syntax expressions are converted to lambda syntax. EntityDAC LINQ Query Syntax: or after a Where clause The required GroupBy clause argument is an expression that defines the grouping criteria. Linq namespace. 0 is very helpful when playing with the set of object collection using LINQ feature. Active 2 years, 9 months ago. Select RoleName From Roles Group By RoleName Having Count(RoleName) > 1 linq to sql. With its introduction of lambda expressions and monads in Visual Studio 2008, it had catapulted the C# language way ahead of Java, which was at version 6 at the time, still discussing the pros and cons of…. LINQ to SQL Group Join. Then, how can we use aggregation using GROUP BY and HAVING clauses? We can easily achieve this goal in SQL query. com is a community for Developers and IT Professionals. LINQ query expression to count number of all items in the collection. The purpose of this query is to group transactions in the table and retrieve a list of unique months and years in a simple list. LINQ Group query - simplifying. LINQ to XML is an amazing API and I hope this set of examples has demonstrated that. Use the foreach loop to iterate the group. It could just be ReSharper's suggestions that make it seem unreadable. Learn GroupBy Operator in LINQ with complete programming example in C#. C# LINQ Contains with IEqualityComparer Now in this example we try to check a complex object type student, we check if there is any student with name "Ajay" in the student list. I was able to replace the group by with a "group join" using the "into" keyword. Syntax highlighting in SQL and LINQ expression editors makes your code readable. Join Olivia Chiu Stone for an in-depth discussion in this video Group queries with lambda expressions, part of LINQ with C# Essential Training Syntax_Grouping. I have an ID column on my Datatable (not unique) and some Double values, like an Invoice ID an…. This post will discuss the GROUP BY and HAVING clauses. LINQ is a cool feature in C# 3. Home; Dynamic linq where clause. Hi there! :slight_smile: I’m facing some problems trying to generate a consolidated Datatable using Linq (GroupBy and Sum). It is through a set of extensions, LINQ ably integrates queries in C# and Visual Basic. Sum or Group. Hi, I read a DBF file (with more than 1. The beauty of these operators is how they can execute against diverse data sources. Use the foreach loop to iterate the group. Related Links. Group By with Dynamic LINQ. It could just be ReSharper's suggestions that make it seem unreadable. Notice the syntax we use in the GroupBy() method - instead of supplying a single property, we create a new anonymous object, which contains the HomeCountry and the Age properties. IEnumerable. The grouping is handled with the LINQ group by statement, and here we choose the Genre field as our key to group by. Not all operators are supported in query syntax, so the two syntax styles are complementary. While querying with LINQ, some times we will have to use the group By clause. The Book class looks like this:. Grouping and Joining Data - examines the standard query operators and query syntax used to group and join data. The SQL AND condition and OR condition can be combined to test for multiple conditions in a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement. The DynamicQuery example contains the Dynamic. In this post, I’m going to look at a couple options from a syntax perspective that you can use to make working with outer joins easier with LINQ. I am using a into keyword which is basically a range variable. Here we will learn linq syntax with examples, linq query syntax with example, linq method syntax with examples. For example, the following default rule define a custom code metrics thanks to several range variables:. Using Group/By/Into will also give you the best possible performance for those complex queries. Here`s its full signature: public static IEnumerable GroupBy( this IEnumerable source,. Query Expression (Query Syntax) Query expression syntax is like as SQL query syntax with just a few minor deviations. cbasoz http://www. Here's a simple example to show you how to GroupBy Multiple Values using LINQ. ToLookup operator is same as GroupBy operator and it is also used for grouping data based on key/value pair. In this post, I’m going to look at a couple options from a syntax perspective that you can use to make working with outer joins easier with LINQ. The SQL MINUS operator is used to return all rows in the first SELECT statement that are not returned by the second SELECT statement. group in example above). This is a companion discussion topic for the original entry at https://www. h will include the query syntax as well. This syntax allows for rich querying including filtering, grouping, and ordering operations with minimal code. However, it's not that easy in LINQ at the first look. In the LINQ to Objects tutorial I described the GroupBy standard query operator and the group clause of the query expression syntax. Before we start, displayed below is the sample data used in the queries below: Simple Group by Anonymous Type - Grouping by Month and Year in a Date. Sum with Query Syntax. Examples of different LINQ queries in C#: GROUP BY, INNER JOIN, COUNT and SUM Setup the LINQPad against the Northwind database. Lets have. Sometimes, the only way to express a command in LINQ is to use the method syntax. Product_Id,Products. “In a query expression it is sometimes useful to store the result of a sub-expression in order to use it in subsequent clauses” - let clause (MSDN) Here’s what a LINQ sub-expression looks like with the method syntax that we’ve been using:. But many a times we also want to use the having clause of SQL with the group by clause in the LINQ. This sample shows different uses of Grouping Operators LINQ - Grouping Operators in C# for Visual Studio 2010 This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. A simple query which demonstrates grouping is shown below. There is no direct having keyword in LINQ to do this we need to use the where clause itself. LINQ Join Example. This does not directly map to SQL, though, and must be used by LINQ internally, to produce typed output. Instead of inserting test data into a few data tables, I can simply mock the data that is used as input to my LINQ query. Language INtegrated Query (LINQ) is a feature of. Key, ProductName=(from gg in g select gg. Here`s its full signature: public static IEnumerable GroupBy( this IEnumerable source,. This sample shows different uses of Grouping Operators LINQ - Grouping Operators in C# for Visual Studio 2010 This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. Also, my LinQ tutorials list doesn’t include ‘LinQ to data-set’ or ‘LinQ to entities’ yet. There are two syntax for writing LINQ queries - Query Syntax and Method Syntax. Count with Group By. Notice: Undefined index: HTTP_REFERER in /home/forge/theedmon. Later lessons will provide more. Resharper's "Convert to LINQ Metohds chain" function was used to help with this conversion. A set of extension methods forming a query pattern is known as LINQ Standard Query Operators. Unfortunately LINQ queries are often written as a direct translation of a SQL query, without taking advantage of the richer features offered by LINQ to SQL and LINQ to Entities. Using LINQ GroupBy with Custom Types. The from clause declares an iteration variable (n in the above example) and I think you can relate it with foreach keyword. My personal code standard: Resort to LINQ / fluent syntax only when it makes the code cleaner and more comprehensible to the average developer. Faculty into Faculty from dbtgroup in ( from student in Faculty group student by student. Find the quantities required for each product to fulfill all the orders. C# LINQ C# linq LINQ Distinct operator is used for removing duplicates elements from the sequence (list). Just copy the linq. Even though you don't know query languages(SQL,XML,) you can write queries by using LINQ (In C# and VB. In Haskell, you can provide your own function directly in the syntax. Suppose there is class named Book which represents an actual book. LINQ Operators and Lambda Expressions. While this approach does have many advantages, at first glance it. In this post, I’m going to look at a couple options from a syntax perspective that you can use to make working with outer joins easier with LINQ. To make it universal we can pass one more parameter “Aggregate Type” and based on that parameter return Min, Max, Avg, Sum or Count. raw download clone embed report print C# 9. It is easy for humans to read and write. NET Elasticsearch LINQ Entity Framework C#. Words API that enables you to build reports using an extended set of reporting features. But many a times we also want to use the having clause of SQL with the group by clause in the LINQ. Loop through Master-Detail Records using LINQ - Here's an example of how to loop through Master-Detail Records using LINQ. CODE: Following is the code or Query example to write GROUP BY Query in LINQ to Entities or Entity Framework:. NET applications. The following example contains the source code:. The SQL GROUP BY Statement. Linq namespace. Grouping Data Using LINQ. In our training programs, lots of case studies and assignment which will be handed over to trainees after each training session which helps to build confidence in learners. The array contains musical artists names. In this sql cheatsheet we will provide some common query questions asked and SQL solutions to these questions. LINQ is a great tool for C# programmers letting you use familiar syntax with a variety of back-end systems without having to learn another language or paradigm for many query operations. By a computed numeric range. This kind of for loop is useful for iterating over arrays and for other applications in which you know in advance how. The code remains concise whilst the intent is very clear, giving good readability and maintainability. This example shows how to calculate sum for each group. One of the greatest benefits of LINQ to SQL and LINQ to Entities is navigation properties that allows queries across several tables, without the need to use explicit joins. Join 429,276 members and discuss topics such as software development, networking, security, web development, mobile development, databases and more. Microsoft's query language is fully integrated and offers easy data access from in-memory objects, databases, XML documents, and many more. Here the tables we have to use are Products and Order Details. In the previous article, we got a quick glimpse of how both LINQ syntaxes look, but let's just get them on the table again right next to each other, so you are sure of what we'll be discussing in this article:. Optimizing Sum, Count, Min, Max and Average with LINQ. I personally prefer the query syntax whenever possible. (In this example, we used just a single range variable, p, so the two syntaxes were similarly simple). I'm sure it is todo with the syntax. Join Olivia Chiu Stone for an in-depth discussion in this video, Lambda expressions, part of LINQ with C# Essential Training. Use the group by operator or GroupBy extension method to get the result based on the group by the particular property of an entity. Hi, I read a DBF file (with more than 1. What is JaQu Differences to Other Data Access Tools Current State Building the JaQu Library Requirements Example Code Configuration Natural Syntax Other Ideas Similar Projects What is JaQu. This syntax allows for rich querying including filtering, grouping, and ordering operations with minimal code. The same source code is the foundation for this compilation, but with all queries converted to Lambda-style LINQ queries. The GROUP BY statement is often used with aggregate functions (COUNT, MAX, MIN, SUM, AVG) to group the result-set by one or more columns. But many a times we also want to use the having clause of SQL with the group by clause in the LINQ. This does not directly map to SQL, though, and must be used by LINQ internally, to produce typed output. LINQ Reporting Engine is a part of the Aspose. LINQ 101 Samples - Lambda Style This compilation is based on the 101 LINQ Samples by Microsoft. NET eine einheitliche Methode für jeglichen Datenzugriff zur Verfügung stellt. This is incredibly powerful but is sparsely documented and introduces a few problems I'll discuss in later posts. Use the group by operator or GroupBy extension method to get the result based on the group by the particular property of an entity. Help with ContentSearch LINQ query syntax. The syntax is input. You can use this as a clue to understand that the ORDER BY statement is used to sort the final result of the query. We’re afraid to say it’s difficult because that makes us look dumb. So far I got here: var rooms = from roomBind. “In a query expression it is sometimes useful to store the result of a sub-expression in order to use it in subsequent clauses” - let clause (MSDN) Here’s what a LINQ sub-expression looks like with the method syntax that we’ve been using:. The Two Faces of LINQ. By Peter Vogel; 02/20/2017. While querying with LINQ, some times we will have to use the group By clause. Linq namespace. IntelliSense for XElement objects with XML schema. In Visual Basic, to change the Title property of the preceding query to MyTitle, you would use the syntax Group By MyTitle=c. NET C# Filter an array of integers with LINQ C# using a lambda expression Convert array of strings to integers with C# LINQ Projection in LINQ C# with the Select operator Projection in LINQ C# with the SelectMany operator Performing joins across two sequences with the LINQ Join operator Joining…. Simple Func delegate example with LINQ in. In LINQ, there are 2 syntax flavors: query-syntax and method-syntax. 5 or Higher. C# LINQ Contains with IEqualityComparer Now in this example we try to check a complex object type student, we check if there is any student with name "Ajay" in the student list. By Peter Vogel; 02/20/2017. Several basic examples in C# language are provided in both query comprehension syntax and lambda expression syntax (extension method). This code uses the GroupBy extension method on IEnumerable to group. The group clause enables you to group your results based on a key that you specify. It groups one collection of objects by a key and joins those groups with another collection of keyed objects. Product_Id = Products. Following is the syntax of using LINQ to SQL Group Join to get data from multiple tables. LINQ (Language INtegrated Query) provides a great query language which can be used to simplify database and object quering. Furthermore, with LINQ we do have one single syntax for all sorts of queries, including in-memory ones and queries targeting various other kinds of data sources, like SQL, XML, web services like Amazon, SharePoint,. Query Syntax is similar to SQL. join rewardsmaster rm on rl. NET implements this interface ,so we can query most of the collections using linq. LINQ to SQL GROUP BY. Instead of inserting test data into a few data tables, I can simply mock the data that is used as input to my LINQ query. LINQ provides you three different ways to write a LINQ query in C# or VB. Here is my scenario:. LINQ is a query language which get integrated in C# to query data form ObjectCollects, SQL, XML etc. An archive of the CodePlex open source hosting site. If I use something aside from "Group" (e. It isn't well-known that PowerShell can use LINQ for many of those tasks which would otherwise use iteration, though somewhat awkwardly. h and linq folder to the include directory for your compiler. Below is the linq code to this:…. For a broader overview, see my post about Grouping By Multiple Columns in LINQ. Group by and Order by in the same expression I want to be able to use linq to group by TopicName and order by DateAdded. It appears that LINQ does not support a query that outputs multiple group by aggregate fields. Ask Question Asked 2 years, 9 months ago. JBake A Dirty Webpack Trick That Reduced Our gzipped Bundle Size by 55KB Code Rule and Code Query over LINQ (CQLinq). The Linq component of the driver is an implementation of LINQ IQueryProvider and IQueryable interfaces that allows you to write CQL queries in Linq and read the results using your object model. Grouping Data. RewardPoints) from rewardslog rl. IntelliSense for XElement objects with XML schema. Here the tables we have to use are Products and Order Details. Tag: c#,linq. LINQ query syntax is consist of a set of query keywords defined into the. LINQ Basics with Query and Method syntax - we will start with the most basic operations with query syntax and build towards more complex ones Grouping Operations with Query and Method syntax - grouping allows you to group the items in a collection by a given common key, for example to group a list of people by their age. It groups one collection of objects by a key and joins those groups with another collection of keyed objects. If you want to write Lookup method in query syntax then you can follow the given structure. In this article I show that this can be actually done very well for most of the common cases. This allows not only to use LINQ-specific query language in a standard VB. There are two syntax for writing LINQ queries - Query Syntax and Method Syntax. The paper adds support for order and group to the comprehension syntax (LINQ was one of the motivations of the paper). LINQ CHEAT SHEET Query Syntax the grouping's key is the same type as the grouping value. Abstract: In this article, we will see how to select the highest value in a Group or Category using LINQ Sometime back I had written an article on Selecting the Highest value in a Group/Category using SQL Server 2005/2008. The second one is LINQ-to-SQL and LINQ-to-Entities. Page {protected void Page_Load(objectsender, EventArgs e) {List empList = newList();. LINQ to SQL GROUP BY. The following example gets the results grouped by each Standard. Several basic examples in C# language are provided in both query comprehension syntax and lambda expression syntax (extension method). Linq namespace. linq join between two tables, lists, linq join by multiple columns, linq join equals multiple conditions, Linq Inner Join with where clause, JOIN on multiple tables, GROUP JOIN, CROSS JOIN, LEFT OUTER JOIN Examples, linq join anonymous type. You can use another keyword like Where, Order By, Order By Descending, etc. php(143) : runtime-created function(1) : eval()'d code(156) : runtime-created. MySQL Syntax Check; MySQL Syntax Check. Sample: Linq. There is a core class object, linq. GroupBy operator projects data in groups based on common attribute or key. Grouping Data Using LINQ. An informal (and incomplete) syntax expression could be:. Sometimes there are unintended, hidden consequences of using Funcs instead of Expressions, or putting your LINQ calls in one order rather than another. LINQ to SQL Group Join. And, no, you're not seeing double. Grouping and Joining Data - examines the standard query operators and query syntax used to group and join data. LINQ will now create groups based on these two properties and attach the anonymous object to the Key property of the group. com - I've been away on holiday). (In this example, we used just a single range variable, p, so the two syntaxes were similarly simple). Flow, which just has one member stream. Ask Question Asked 2 years, 9 months ago. I was trying the sql query below Grouping by more than one columns, but it gives syntax errors !!! Can somebody help me convert this query to LINQ ? select rl. Comments (2) | Share. Overview of LINQ: LINQ stands for Language Integrated Query, which is descriptive for where it's used and what it does. In this example, the Boolean expression tests whether a student's average exam score is greater than 75. Net) that extends these languages with query operators and some other features that make it possible to integrate queries in the languages. I initially starting using LINQ as it was easy to order the objects in a list without having to write a Comparer. After by, you give an expression which returns the value for the Key. I think what you are looking for is a nested Group By, then I think the following query should work for you. The paper adds support for order and group to the comprehension syntax (LINQ was one of the motivations of the paper). LINQ Method Syntax: Filter C# Lists. This is a requirement for the data source to be queried using the linq queries. I have come to use LINQ in my every day programming a lot. It isn't well-known that PowerShell can use LINQ for many of those tasks which would otherwise use iteration, though somewhat awkwardly. Suppose you have a tblRoom and tblUserInfo. Group Join produces hierarchical data structures. Introduction to LINQ. You can use this as a clue to understand that the ORDER BY statement is used to sort the final result of the query. Highest Value in each Group using LINQ - In this post, I will show you how to fetch the maximum value in each Group using LINQ. You can use LINQ to query just about anything by knowing essential operators along with a few additional query operators. Join Olivia Chiu Stone for an in-depth discussion in this video, Group queries with lambda expressions, part of LINQ with C# Essential Training. Database applications frequently rely on "Dynamic SQL" — queries that are constructed at run-time through program logic. With this method, we create a collection where, at each key, a group of results is placed. raywenderlich. The syntax is input. NET C# Filter an array of integers with LINQ C# using a lambda expression Convert array of strings to integers with C# LINQ Projection in LINQ C# with the Select operator Projection in LINQ C# with the SelectMany operator Performing joins across two sequences with the LINQ Join operator Joining…. The paper adds support for order and group to the comprehension syntax (LINQ was one of the motivations of the paper). The GROUP BY statement is usually used (mostly with aggregate functions) to group the result of your query by one or more columns. For example, there's Min() and a Max() functions, so to get both min & max from a list, you seem to need to make 2 LINQ queries:. Comments (2) | Share. Last but not least, Olivia provides tips for optimizing the performance of your. The acronym LINQ stands for Language Integrated Query. A set of extension methods forming a query pattern is known as LINQ Standard Query Operators. This standard is not freely available. Count with Group By. var result = (from product in productList select product). LINQ JOIN Operator. In the image below you will see the architectural overview, how LinQ is bound with. Using LINQ GroupBy with Custom Types. Later lessons will provide more. NET framework (3. NHibernate's LINQ GroupBy capabilities Recently in the project that is using NHibernate 3. I hope, this article will be helpful to understand how to write complex queries using LINQ or lambda. LINQ is a cool feature in C# 3. Comments (2) | Share. Faculty into Faculty from dbtgroup in ( from student in Faculty group student by student. which likely exclude LINQ and depend on the nature of your input set. CustomerID is an int. Here I used the generic term "data" and didn't specified type of data. Suppose you have a tblRoom and tblUserInfo. For example, Into MyGroup = Group renames the property to MyGroup. With this method, we create a collection where, at each key, a group of results is placed. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: