Types Of Scale

Lines that converge imply depth, scale and distance - a fence or roadway converges into the distance provides the illusion that a flat two-dimensional image has three-dimensional depth. Without this consideration for scale and proportion, this room may not be so well balanced simply due to the low horizontal nature of the seating. Data can be classified as being on one of four scales: nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio. All map scales are an expression of the numerical relationship between the MAP and the LAND that is represented. The notes of the major scale are numbered from 1 to 8, with the tonic assigned the number 1 and other tones moving up in sequence to the octave, which is number 8. Auction barns often have scales. Operational Control. (O27 track sections will make a 27" circle compared to the standard O scale track sections which will form a 31" circle. Scale drawings Before studying this lesson about scale drawings,you should review solving proportions Since it is not always possible to draw on paper the actual size of real-life objects such as the real size of a car, an airplane, we need scale drawings to represent the size like the one you see below of a van. That is why the producers are keener on expanding the size or scale of production. Scale is not maintained correctly by any projection throughout an entire map. Instructional Job Aid | Developing Checklists and Rating Scales Page 5 Rating scales What is a rating scale? A rating scale is a tool used for assessing the performance of tasks, skill levels, procedures, processes, qualities, quantities, or end products, such as reports, drawings, and computer programs. With four points, I’m not sure that your data can satisfy all of those. In this highly interactive object, learners associate basic line types and terms with engineering drawing geometry. Economies of scale can provide an answer for this type of trade. Architect scales are used by architects to determine the actual dimensions of a distance on blueprints or scaled drawings, much like engineer scales. Zero indicates the absence of pain, while 10 represents. To know the weight, you just have to place the object to be weighed on the upper surface of the scale and the scale will display the weight within a few seconds. POINT SCALE; METHOD - 1. Quick Facts. Here is a complete list of the major, minor harmonic and minor melodic scales, in treble and bass clefs. Four Types of Measurement Scales Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio • The scales are distinguished on the relationships assumed to exist between objects having different scale values • The four scale types are ordered in that all later scales have all the properties of earlier scales— plus additional properties. They are also able to swim quietly and this is why they can catch prey easily. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throws light upon the four main types of scales used for measurement. The method to do this is the same, you simply have a different set of notes in the scale that you are forming chords from and using to form your thirds, fifths and seventh notes for. Setting 'PSLTSCALE' to 1 (On) means that the line type scale of your modelspace geometry will be scaled to match the viewport scale. That is why the producers are keener on expanding the size or scale of production. But once you’ve picked one up, you’re likely to use it frequently. This type of measurement is known as a Nominal measurement scale. In addition, showering and bathing in hard water can cause soap and shampoo to not lather properly, leaving skin and hair feeling dry. Diseconomies of scale is an economic concept referring to a situation in which economies of scale no longer functions for a firm. Mattress Softness Scale. White Paper: 5-point vs. Why are Governments and the Private Sector Cooperating? Interest in PPPs and other forms of government-private sector cooperation has emerged in countries around the world for a variety of reasons. Number of divisions in the scale – odd or even. In the process of expansion, the producer may. Multiple regression is an extension of simple linear regression. n Agree/Disagree scales are less desirable than True/False scales for these reasons (Fowler, 1995): - Agree/Disagree questions tend to be cognitively complex. These 8 Scales Reveal Everything You Should Know About Different Cultures. Platform scales have a higher weight capacity than most other types of scientific scales and are useful for weighing heavy bulk materials. I would say it depends on which scale you use to measure it: • If you "measure" temperature as comfortable or uncomfortable it should be considered nominal. An old weighing scales painted black with a brass bowl containing apples all isolated on white Weighing tomatoes. No matter how you choose to display the scale, the default ranges affect the precision of your data. Both combine at least two of the four phases of the supply chain. Scale bar blocks courtesy of cad-blocks. Popular OS map scales. Novice survey authors often create their own scale rather than using the appropriate common scale. Here balance scales are used to show that the box "x" has a mass of 4. We controlled the fundamental forces of the entire universe. I wanted to use these scales for weighing easter eggs, but it takes quite a few easter eggs to make the dial move as this scale identifies pounds better than ounces…. Economies of scale in manufacturing and distribution brought down the price of mass-produced goods so much that all but the most well-to-do customers were. February 2012. McDonald’s Corporation has a divisional organizational structure. That is, if you pick the right one. You can place an object in one pan and standard weights in the other to find what the object weighs. Traditionally, statisticians talk of four types of measurement scales: (1) nominal, (2) ordinal, (3) interval, and (4) ratio. Types of Economies of Scale. under arborist. Two of them are on 7-point Likert scale, two 5-point and the last two are on 4-point Likert scale. Rizwanulhassan. Thus, your study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Skin diseases that have excessive scale or flaking (papulosquamous disorders) are due to epidermal inflammation or proliferation. Viewed 3k times 3. It uses the specified values for the maximum x-axis limit and minimum y-axis limit. The length of this period varies with the type of scale and the degree of super saturation of the sparingly soluble salt. The interval scale is characterized by a constant or equal interval between the values of the scale. As such, business can be viewed as a process of building and defending competitive advantages. Next up the list is the Ordinal Scale. Interval: A scale that represents quantity and has equal units but for which zero represents simply an additional point of measurement is an interval scale. Scale control can be achieved through operation of the cooling system at subsaturated conditions or through the use of chemical additives. Three Types of Scale: 1. Network economies of scale: (Please note: This type of economy of scale is linked more to the growth of demand for a product - but it is still worth understanding and applying. Dichotomous Scales. The scale of measurement depends on the variable itself. Maya and Mabel are inspecting a 80 to 1 scale floor plan of their new house. Scales for Weighing - all at low, discount prices. View printable PDF Buy the poster (20" x 26") updated August 2018. DeFranzo October 20, 2011 Attitude is a group of opinions, values and dispositions to act associated with a particular object or concept. In this highly interactive object, learners associate basic line types and terms with engineering drawing geometry. Verbal Scale: The verbal scale is just a sentence stating that "1 Map Unit = X Land Units". It uses the specified values for the maximum x-axis limit and minimum y-axis limit. Oystershell scale is a common insect pest of many woody plants in Colorado. The D melodic minor scale has 1 sharp. Elasmoid scales are those types of fish scales that. Romanian Minor Scale from Eastern Europe and great for improvising in a melancholy mood with a twist of traditional folk music. Your explanations were very explicit and illustrative. the size or level of something, especially when this is large:. , adult memories of childhood feelings The advantage of criterion -related validity is that it is a relatively simple statistically based type of validity!. Fujita's scale, which ranges from F0 to F5. These types of fish scales make it easy for the shark to swim and drag is reduced too. That is why the producers are keener on expanding the size or scale of production. 2 lb / 250 kg x 0. A pain scale is a tool that doctors use to help assess a person's pain. Using classical models of trade (e. Scale bar blocks courtesy of cad-blocks. Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of internal consistency, that is, how closely related a set of items are as a group. Piano scales – overviews and instructions. For example, only the ratio scale has meaningful zeros. They refer to economies that are unique to a firm. Designers would say that the sofa is the wrong scale for the room. These psychometrics are crucial for the interpretability and the generalizability of the constructs being measured. When the pans contain exactly the same mass the beam is in balance. ) and the size or distance of an interval (ex. Scaling Skin. Calculating the pH of a strong acid or base solution. REUTERS/Issei Kato Many people, perhaps especially Americans, underestimate how differently people do things in other countries. A scalable business is a firm that enjoys an increased competitive advantage as it grows. Scales in other families include important pests of cactus, elm, oak, sycamore, and various conifers. Rather, a major scale is a special kind of interval scale – one defined by the pitch-relations (intervals) among the various scale-values. Each level of measurement has some important properties that are useful to know. In particular, I have found through empirical analysis of many such studies that the actual standard deviation in surveys on 5-point scales is 40%-60% of the maximum possible variation (alas undocumented here). Diagonal Scale. This is not true of the other two types of scales. Spring scales. There are many different kinds of scales out there, so it’s important to get. Interval Scales 4. Types of Scales and Measures Thurstone scales. You can achieve technical economies of scale through improving the efficiency and the size of your. Below are the different types of schizophrenia and their characteristics. Stainless steel surfaces form a grey/black scale during hot rolling or forming. Benefits Of Computer Network. I’m a young 14-year old player and just want to know how many types of gospel piano scales there are and which ones I really need to know to progress as a gospel player. Business scale is an advantage or disadvantage that a business faces as it grows larger. The Blues Scale is a 6 note scale, which is the same as minor pentatonic, but with the addition of the flattened 5th. Scales of measurement are commonly broken down into four types, nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. As shown in Figure 8 there are: Personal Area Network (PAN) Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Networks (WAN). Types Of Scale Insects. Symmetrical Heptatonic Scales aka Don't Be Scared by the Boring Title. Rizwanulhassan. scale as noted. Check out our reviews of the best digital bathroom scales to help you keep track of progress toward your diet and fitness goals. Tim Brown's Modular Scale site raised awareness about type scales, helped to improve typography on the web, and it was the inspiration for this project. Strain gauge load cells offer accuracies from within 0. Scale is not maintained correctly by any projection throughout an entire map. To identify a specific scale, you need to know its unique sequence of intervals. These scale bars show what one unit represents at different scales. Three Types of Scale: 1. The most commonly used scale in popular music is the major scale. When going up (ascending) in the melodic minor scale, you must raise the 6th and 7th notes. According to Wikipedia there are over 8000 species of scale insects. Introducing various metal casting defects with many pictures by Dandong Foundry in China. Executional cost. The scale uses the hearing threshold of 20 μPa or 20 x 10-6 Pa as the reference level. List of All Major Scales with Notes, Diatonic Triads, & Relative Minors. The ascending scale is just the C major scale with a minor third instead of the regular third (Eb instead of E). " Here, there is no monetary consideration in exchange for such activities. In the years since it was created, the Need for Cognition Scale has been used in literally hundreds of studies and has been shown to be correlated with a wide variety of other variables, including the effectiveness of an advertisement, interest in politics, and juror decisions (Petty, Briñol, Loersch, & McCaslin, 2009) [2]. There are three types of minor scales: natural, harmonic, and melodic. GSA Geologic Time Scale. Modulation - Key Relationships Another way of describing modulation between keys is to describe the relative distance from one key to another via the cycle of 5ths. You can see the philosophy of measurement in the little kids who don't even know what math is. In order for any scientific instrument to provide measurements that can be trusted, it must be both reliable and valid. Definitions of pH, pOH, and the pH scale. There are four major scales (or types) of measurement of variables: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Common on backyard trees, ornamental shrubs, greenhouse plants and houseplants, over 1,000 species of scale insects exist in North America. Instructional Job Aid | Developing Checklists and Rating Scales Page 5 Rating scales What is a rating scale? A rating scale is a tool used for assessing the performance of tasks, skill levels, procedures, processes, qualities, quantities, or end products, such as reports, drawings, and computer programs. Each model's unique size, style and capacity make it capable of handling different levels of accuracy and precision, as well as varying applications. You can see there are four different types of measurement scales (nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio). Angoff Subject: Chapter 15 of Educational Measurement (1971) -- Permission for reprint given by the American. When markets are limited, there will be no scope for expanding production. (e) Financial Diseconomies: If the scale of production increases beyond the optimum scale, the cost of financial capital rises. In order for any scientific instrument to provide measurements that can be trusted, it must be both reliable and valid. Category Howto & Style; Show more Show less. Likert scales are one of the most commonly used scales in social science research. There are four different scales of measurement used in research; nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-53347. n Agree/Disagree scales are less desirable than True/False scales for these reasons (Fowler, 1995): - Agree/Disagree questions tend to be cognitively complex. Each scale of measurement satisfies one or more Nominal Scale of Measurement. For example the way we measure Temperature and voting Population Percentage are both different, because temperature is a continuous data and Population is discrete data (Count). For example, only the ratio scale has meaningful zeros. Scale is an important consideration in planning a business, developing strategy and evaluating the competition. By using the m multiplier and simple algebra, we can quickly solve economic scale questions. To get from one end of the scale to the other, they require gaps of more than a half step. under arborist. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Rating and Ranking Questions: Levels of Importance in Your Survey Susan E. distance) is different for each scale; the larger this second number is, the smaller the scale of the map. The rules used to assign numerals objects define the kind of scale and level of measurement. Map scale is the ratio of the distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground. This 'hierarchy of genres' was adopted as the main agenda for "academic art" because it reflected Italian Renaissance values about what was the 'best' or 'noblest' type of art. multiply the measurement on the drawing (in inches decimal equivalent) with the denominator; where the denominator is the bottom number. Define each of the following four scales of measurement. List of Musical Scales. Degrees are relative to the major scale. Learn least-toxic methods of scale control here. To better understand this relationship, let's step out of the world of testing and onto a bathroom scale. A map of an area 100 miles long by 100 miles wide drawn at a scale of 1:63,360 would be more than 8 feet square! To make this map a more convenient. These scale bars show what one unit represents at different scales. Scale: A standard of measurement or estimation with regards to height, width, length, and weight; the dimensions of an art object in relation to the original and/or its surroundings. GSA Geologic Time Scale. Noncomparative Scales: The noncomparative scale, also called as monadic or metric scale is a scale in which each object is scaled independently of the other objects in the stimulus set under study. Human scale is that scale that feels comfortable to man. " Here, there is no monetary consideration in exchange for such activities. It is one of the most widely used question types in a survey. 5 Different Types of Internal Diseconomies of Scale of Production Article shared by When a firm continues to expand beyond the optimum capacity, economies of scale will disappear and will give place to diseconomies. For example, a mass producer of motor vehicles can benefit from technical economies because it can employ mass production techniques and benefit from. A scale is a sequence of small intervals - in Western music, those intervals are usually tones (whole steps) and semi-tones (half steps). Spring scale is one of the many types of weighing scales with a simple mechanism employed. that govern passive joint mobilization sInvestigate what the literature suggests regarding mobilization effectiveness and efficacy tMemorize the morphological and capsular characteris-tics of each joint uDemonstrate selected joint mobilization techniques continuing ED Objective 1 Define osteokinematic and arthrokinematic motion. Recognizing scales by ear. Scales, Norms, and Equivalent Scores Author: William H. Ask Question Asked 3 years, 7 months ago. GEOGRAPHY SKILLS: SCALE 2. Ratio Scales. It is a common experience of every producer that costs can be reduced by increased production. Each scale of measurement satisfies one or more Nominal Scale of Measurement. Without consideration of scale, in particular, human scale, our everyday activities would be more difficult. scale definition: 1. Types of Measurement Scales Nominal Scale. "Your race hasn't even reached Type 1 on the Kardashev scale. Thus, expanded production is possible which offers economies of scale to the manufacturers of export products. walkway must. Within a few years the cottony cushion scale was completely controlled by these introduced natural enemies. Conceptually, in this structure type, the business organization is divided into components that are given responsibilities based on operational requirements. GSA Geologic Time Scale. For example, Chinese people also have a nominal age, which is tricky to calculate. Types of Weighing Scales Analytical Balance - One which measures mass to a very high degree of precision and accuracy. These are useful to record data and thus apply statistical or other scientific analysis on this data. Scale remediation techniques must be quick and nondamaging to the wellbore, tubing, and the reservoir. Oystershell Scale. A mechanical scale or balance is used to describe a weighing device that is used to measure the mass, force exertion, tension and resistance of an object without the need of a power supply. A scalable business is a firm that enjoys an increased competitive advantage as it grows. It doesn't control the resources of this one planet, let alone a solar system or a galaxy. The Fahrenheit scale is a clear example of the interval scale of measurement. For instance, how consistently can a Brix refractometer gauge sugar content in table grapes? How reliable is a scale when measuring the weight of a calf?. Other important concepts used in aerial photography are stereoscopic coverage, fiducial marks, focal length, roll and frame numbers, and flight lines and index maps. By using the m multiplier and simple algebra, we can quickly solve economic scale questions. The Blues Scale is a 6 note scale, which is the same as minor pentatonic, but with the addition of the flattened 5th. The Dorian mode also has a half step between those two scale degrees. Next up the list is the Ordinal Scale. (d) Perspective Scales:. We also look at what kind of characteristics most cost structures display; cost structure have fixed and variable costs and they can have benefits of economies of scale or economies of scope. These are judged at a defined level within a. Research and compare average salaries. The Wechsler scales contained separate subscores for verbal and performance IQ, thus being less dependent on overall verbal ability than early versions of the Stanford-Binet scale, and was the first intelligence scale to base scores on a standardized normal distribution rather than an age-based quotient. This is a review of various economic phenomenon that are important in high-technology industries, such as personalization of products and pricing, versioning, bundling, switching costs, lock-in, economics of scale, network effects, complements and computer-mediated contracts. The freezing point of water (at sea level) is 0°C. Scale feeding on older trees results in reduced tree vigor, twig dieback, reduced yields, and lower fruit grades due to heavy sooty mold. The pain VAS is a continuous scale comprised of a horizontal (HVAS) or vertical (VVAS) line, usually 10 centimeters (100 mm) in length, anchored by 2 verbal descriptors, one for each symptom extreme (2, 6). Value is one of the seven elements of art. Types of Measurement Scales Nominal Scale. Example - Blueprint Drawing Scale 1/4". The 1/35th scale Piranha and 1/72nd scale Warrior compared side by side again. 3 Most Important Types of Returns to Scale in Production Article shared by Returns to scale refers to a relationship which shows the degree of change in output caused by change in quantities of all inputs in a fixed proportion. 5 mm and 1:87. So we can always be confident that the meaning of the distance between 7 and 10 is the same as the distance between 42 and 45. The MAP unit is always mentioned first. In Isaiah 40:12 ; the Revised Version (British and American) Proverbs 16:11 for peles, in the sense of "instrument for weighing. O27 Scale: This is also 1:48 scale, but the difference is in the tighter curves. We have analytical balances, industrial scales, shipping scales, medical scales, baby scales, kitchen scales, crane scales, counting scales and more. Instructional Job Aid | Developing Checklists and Rating Scales Page 5 Rating scales What is a rating scale? A rating scale is a tool used for assessing the performance of tasks, skill levels, procedures, processes, qualities, quantities, or end products, such as reports, drawings, and computer programs. Platform scales have a higher weight capacity than most other types of scientific scales and are useful for weighing heavy bulk materials. Compared to the first two, it is the most abstract, but also the most versatile. Scale insects typically adhere to the stems, branches, and sometimes the leaves of plants to feed on sap, and they have a shell-like bump appearance, which sometimes causes them to be mistaken for a fungal or bacterial disease. For example, a RF scale of 1 : 1,200 means that every one unit on the map is equal to 1,200 units on the ground. Pentatonic scales, as their name suggests, have only five notes. The freezing point of water (at sea level) is 0°C. A pig is a strong animal and may start biting or forcing its nose. ) and the size or distance of an interval (ex. Scale Type Linear Scale Maximum Measuring Range (mm) 350. There is a difference between external and internal economies of scale. Your lemon tree is most susceptible to attacks by insects such as mites, brown soft scales, citrus thrips and whiteflies, and aphids. Fractional or Ratio Scale: A fractional scale map shows the fraction of an object or land feature on 2. edu Dec 2010 AGREEMENT • Strongly Agree. Verbal Scale: This type of scale use simple words to describe a prominent. Three Types of Scale: 1. Armored scales have a hard, waxy shell covering a soft body. You can place an object in one pan and standard weights in the other to find what the object weighs. Parametric vs. There are two main types of economies of scale: internal and external. This type of response scale does not give the respondent an opportunity to be neutral on his answer in a question. That is, scales make use of differences in intensity among the indicators of a variable. In addition, showering and bathing in hard water can cause soap and shampoo to not lather properly, leaving skin and hair feeling dry. As exists other types or scales major and minor, theses basic scales that we just saw receive the name as "natural scales", because they are the most basic and primitive in music study. The scale is heavily parasitized by several different species of parasitic wasps. Some of these scales are known under many names and sometimes there are multiple scales referred to one name. Symmetrical Heptatonic Scales aka Don't Be Scared by the Boring Title. These differ in the meaning that is given to the values that are assigned, and the relationship between these values for a given variable. For example, only the ratio scale has meaningful zeros. This is defined as 0 dB. Some species of flatfishes (flounders, soles, etc) have ctenoid scales on the eyed side of the body and cycloid scales on the blind side. Dissociative Experiences Scale - II The Dissociative Experiences Scale measures a wide variety of types of dissociation, including both problematic dissociative experiences, and normal dissociative experiences (e. The word "value" is used a lot around this site and with good reason. A network effect is the effect that multiple users have on the value of a good or service to other users. constant returns to scale, if the exponents a and b add up to exactly one. Equality in commodity and factor prices : International trade leads to an equality of the prices of internationally traded goods and productive factors in all the trading regions of the world. Internal economies are controllable by management because they are internal to the company. The scale is a simple ratio of map to ground measurement with a colon between the two measurements. Another important criterion for classifying networks is their scale (physical size). eye colour. Rating Scale Questions. (The main effect of the adjustment is that low and very high frequencies are given less weight than on the standard decibel scale. There are about 8,000 types of these plant pests. It might surprise you to learn that Likert scales are a very specific type of survey question, and what you have been calling "Likert" may be something entirely different. Human scale is that scale that feels comfortable to man. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throws light upon the four main types of scales used for measurement. Like the major scale we can also build 7 chords of the minor scale. Additional items assess the over-all severity, incapacitation, and the patient’s level of awareness of the movements, and distress associated with them. Ordinal or Ranking Scales 3. It is the type that is used on roof-tops for residents and buildings. Designers would say that the sofa is the wrong scale for the room. The simplest ordinal scale is a ranking. I already understand major scales and the circle of fifths and am now working on minor scales. The following are the common types of business scale. The Complete K-5 Math Learning Program Built for Your Child. The dimensions of the living room in the scaled plan are 4 centimeters by 5 centimeters right over here. In general, the simplest scales can be found in very old music and in the music of nonliterate cultures, while the most complex scales occur in the world's most advanced cultures. Three Types of Scale: 1. Each level of measurement has some important properties that are useful to know. Scale Type Linear Scale Maximum Measuring Range (mm) 350. Learn how bar scale, fractional scale and verbal scale are used to find real world distances from measurements on map. Like an ordinal scale, the objects are ordered (in terms of the ordering of the numbers). 8 An example of a line marking scale. Value deals with the lightness or darkness of a color. The chord built on the second note is identified by the Roman numeral II (two). There are many types of scale, but here are a few of the most common ones. Lines that converge imply depth, scale and distance - a fence or roadway converges into the distance provides the illusion that a flat two-dimensional image has three-dimensional depth. The Hungarian minor scale is a type of combined musical scale. 9 percent of U. Though not ubiquitous, the emotions induced by different keys in music is usually similar for most listeners. There are three types of minor scales: natural , harmonic , and melodic. Melodic minor scales muddle things even further by having the gall to be totally different depending on which way you are going. Causes of constant Returns to scale; Limits of Economies of scale: Increasing returns to Scale cannot go on indefinitely. Rather, a major scale is a special kind of interval scale – one defined by the pitch-relations (intervals) among the various scale-values. Intervals have two characteristics: the type or quality of an interval (ex. A competitive advantage can include any capability that has value in executing your business model. List of Musical Scales. , the ratio scale) has an absolute zero point. White Paper: 5-point vs. Degrees are relative to the major scale. Research and compare average salaries. For example the way we measure Temperature and voting Population Percentage are both different, because temperature is a continuous data and Population is discrete data (Count). Consumer banking Group Launches New Home loan Scheme For rehab purpose of First-time Potential buyers - Home finance loan Advice. The scale bug is small, oval and flat, with a protective tan to brown shell-like covering (scale). The scale of measurement depends on the variable itself. Nominal Scale. When a firm reduces costs and raises production, internal economies of scale have been realized. Administrative savings can arise when large firms spread their administrative and management costs across all their plants, departments, divisions, or subsidiaries. In surveys, the most commonly used question types are rating scale questions. List of musical scales and modes Name Image Sound Degrees Intervals # of pitch classes Lower tetrachord Upper tetrachord Use of key signature usual or unusual ; 15 equal temperament. When these issues arise, you have to be ready to deal with them – or they can potentially affect the project's outcome. Small companies can compete by producing new products, catering to local tastes, or nimbly reacting to changes in the marketplace. Even on an 11-point (0-10) scale respondents start to have difficulty reliably placing themselves, lowering the rating scale quality. Some of these include: Economies of Scale: When manufacturing or selling at a large scale, companies are able to avail cost advantages because per unit costs of the product fall. Each scale of measurement satisfies one or more Nominal Scale of Measurement. These scale insects often produce copious amounts of honeydew. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: